25 March 2012

Let's get technical - Its ok to get hyper

Don't panic - the title in no way refers to a psychological state of being; it refers to the concept of hyperfocal distances :). Now that we have spoken at length about the technicals of photography (aperture, shutter speed, focal length, depth of field, etc), I believe that the time is ripe to delve into this magnificent and magical funda of focussing in photography - the hyperfocal distance. This is the sweet, magical spot at which when you focus, the image seems to be in focus from some distance before that spot to infinity in the background. Have you ever wondered why despite the smallest aperture (for eg, f22) you are unable to bring all elements of a landscape shot into focus? The trick is to focus on this sweet spot!

Hyperfocal Distance
When the lens is focused at the hyperfocal distance, the depth of field extends from half the distance between the focus point & the lens, to infinity. This occurs at all aperture settings; you can get this effect even at the usual minimum f-value like f3.5 (you needn't push the dial up to f22 or anything remotely close to it). The hyperfocal distance differs on the basis of the focal length & aperture of the lens. For example, a 200mm lens could have the hyperfocal distance as 275 ft (hence the depth of field would range from 275/2= ~136ft to infinity) while a lens at 25mm could have it at 5 ft (dof ranging from 2.5ft to infinity). These values themselves would differ at different aperture values. As you must have inferred by now, you need to "know" the hyperfocal distance for each focal length beforehand. There are multiple options for you to be in the know of the hyperfocal distances, a few of which are listed below.

1. Using the distance scale on lenses
I think it's best explained through a video tutorial. There are many out there on youtube. See if get the gist of the depth of field scale (also called distance scale) that most lenses have on them, through this video tutorial. If not, ask & you will find many more in youtube.

2. Using tools/calculators
For android users, this app comes highly recommended - DOF Calculator. Amongst other features, it has a hyperfocal distance calculator which takes the focal length, aperture & camera model to reveal the hyperfocal distance for this set of parameters.


I am unaware of any such apps for windows or apple phones (not that they don't exist) and so have not written about them. 

If you want to, and if you prefer the old school methods, you can also calculate the hyperfocal distance with your trusty pen and paper using the hyperfocal equation which is primarily a function of  focal length & aperture. Don't get swayed by the simplicity of the equation - it needs detailed understanding of a multitude of fundas before you can grasp the equation in its entirety. I myself chose to fall back on the android app rather than lose hair over the equation :).

Yet another option is to simply print and carry a detailed chart/table of the settings and the resultant hyperfocal distances. One such chart is available in pdf format here.

See it to believe it!
Check out the below images to see the difference for yourselves. The second image seems like it is in focus from -∞ to +∞, doesn't it? That's the magic of the sweet spot :)
Without hyperfocal distance
Focused at hyperfocal distance

11 March 2012

Let's get technical - Wadda Focus!

Almost a decade ago, when I got my hands on the new kid on the block - the digital camera, a feature in it that marked a major shift from film-photography was the auto-focus (AF) mechanism. The camera has some  intelligent and sometimes bewildering intelligence in it, one such mark-of-a-genius trait being the AF mechanism. Have you ever wondered how the camera achieves such sharp focus effortlessly, while being equally stubborn at other times? In this post, let's look at how the AF mechanism works, thus moving a step closer to understanding your camera and avoiding embarrassing moments when it refuses to focus on your friends :)  

Types of Auto-Focus (AF) mechanisms
AF mechanisms are broadly classified as either ACTIVE or PASSIVE. In the former mode, the AF mechanism emits waves, infrared or infrasonic (like a submarine's SONAR) and gauges the distance between the lens and the subject. The passive mechanism is named as such because there are no signals sent from the camera to the subject for calculating the distance between the lens and subject; instead the AF software inside the camera analyses the image to achieve optimal contrast obtained at different positions of the focusing ring. Most of the contemporary cameras use the passive mode because of the problems inherent in the active mechanism.

Active Mechanism
There are multiple problems associated with the active mechanism, which are aggravated when you are not in control of the environment. 
  • Infrared interference: if the AF mechanism uses IR rays for calculating the distance, an attempt to focus near a halogen bulb or fire or a candle would throw the AF mechanism off balance.
  • Transparent surfaces: using SONAR for calculating the distance would ruin the focusing attempt, were a glass or windshield to be introduced between the camera and the subject since the sound waves would bounce off the glass instead of reaching the subject.

Passive Mechanism
The passive AF mechanism quickly changes the focus a few times and compares the contrast of the images obtained. Based on which focus setting offers the best contrast, the camera chooses that as the optimal focus. This is based on the fact that a sharply focused image shows higher contrast than a poorly focused image. Well, as true as that maybe, only a genius could have tapped into such an obvious fact and used it as a means of focusing. Hats off to such Einsteins!

So why doesn't my camera focus?
If you understand the meaning of the term "contrast", then it is pretty easy for you to understand why the passive AF mechanism may act stubbornly at times. Contrast is the difference between the light and dark areas/pixels in the image. If the contrast is low, the image does not look rich in color; it looks dusty or dull. As you increase the contrast, the darker areas become darker and bright pixels become brighter. Also, given an illumination setup, the image shows best contrast when sharply focused.

Compare the low and high contrast images below. Note the difference in color levels and hence, the clarity of the image.
High Contrast Low Contrast
So if your camera is letting you down on occasions, check the below list and see if any of these is the reason:
  • The frame is almost uniformly colored: this happens when you try to focus on a clear sky, single-colored and uniformly lit wall or object. Since all the pixels have almost the same values, the camera cannot identify the contrast level in the image and hence cannot perform contrast based AF. In the below image, I tried to focus on a white wall but could not because of the lack of contrast.
White wall
  • Moving subject: this happens if the subject is in motion while you are struggling to focus on it. Since the pixels are moving, the 2 images taken by the AF mechanism for comparing contrast cannot be used for comparison. In this case, you are better off focusing on something that is at the same distance from the lens as the subject is, and then keeping the shutter half-pressed (the focusing happens when the shutter is half pressed), move the camera to get the subject in frame.
  • Low light conditions: less light means more dark areas. The darker the picture, the less the contrast (remember, contrast required dark as well as bright areas) which stresses out the AF mechanism. I was unable to focus in the below image for lack of visible light. As such, the superman logo is out of focus. (though it is bright red, lack of contrast and complete lack of visible light scrambled the AF mechanism).
Low light conditions

If you turn on the AF-assist beam through camera settings, in low-light conditions the camera will emit a bright light through an emitter on the front of the camera body (usually its next to the lens) which is used to illuminate the subject, thus increasing light levels and helping the AF mechanism focus. So enabling this option will help you use the AF in low light conditions. Some cameras allow the option of using the camera flash for AF - this is termed as pre-flash in which the camera emits multiple bursts of the flash to illuminate the subject while focusing.

AF Assist lamp

How does my camera focus?
If you are curious to know which AF mechanism your camera employs, you can try this trick. Go outdoors and point towards the sky and try to focus on it. In case of active AF, the camera will mostly focus but in case of passive AF, given a clear sky (no clouds and no variation in color), the camera will not focus.

Some tips about AF
The focusing mechanism offers two modes for you to choose from - continuous and shoot-only. Should you choose the latter mode, the camera will attempt to focus only when you press the shutter halfway. This is good and recommended for situations where you take time to compose the picture (portraits, studio shoot, landscapes, etc). During sports or high speed photography though, you may want to switch to continuous focus mode so that the camera does not wait for you to half-press the shutter to begin the focusing process, thus introducing a lag between shutter press and image capture. In this mode, the camera keeps attempting to focus the frame, regardless of whether you are tracking the moving subject or simply waving the camera around while waiting for something exciting to happen.

The continuous mode keeps the camera on its toes and hence, consumes more battery and leads to faster wear and tear of the focus motor. So unless specifically required, work with the shoot-only mode.

28 February 2012

Creative Explosion - Perspective

With this, I start a new thread of articles which explore creativity in photography. Until now, most articles penned by me have been restricted to the threads "Let's get technical" and "Blasting the myths" which dealt with laying down the technical fundamentals and clearing the mist around photography resp. Along the way, I believe I have chalked out a sound understanding of photography and laid the foundation for the next generation of posts.

Simplistically speaking, perspective is the spatial distance between objects in the image, that helps you judge the spatial placement/location of the objects and their heights/forms relative to each other. Perspective is affected by the focal-length & subject-to-lens distance combination. You can alter perspective by either moving around or by changing the focal-length of the lens or both.

A wider focal length creates more depth in the image (do not confuse this with dof) and makes the objects look farther away. A tele lens will make the objects look more closely located though in actuality they may not be, thus making the image look flat (less depth). I don't have an image to depict this phenomenon right now so I'll suggest that you visit this page to understand what I am blabbering about :)

How to alter perspective?
I'd say that more than focal length, it is the subject-to-lens distance that determines perspective. After all, change in focal length is an eventuality that follows when you change the distance. Unleash your creativity with perspectives by moving around the subject and clicking from various distances while maintaining the subject's height/width the same across images. You will notice that if you kneel down and click a standing person's pic from a close distance, the person looks gigantic as compared to his/her surroundings. This attributes a larger-than-life or a heroic feel to the persona of the subject. On the other hand, if you click the same subject by standing on a stool and looking down at the subject, he/she appears dwarfed, which creates a sense of suppression.

How perspective is used in movies
This is where the director of photography in movies/sitcoms comes into play. Using a telephoto lens, the director positions the actor far away from the lens. When the director zooms in on the actor through the telephoto lens, it looks like the oncoming truck is right in the actor's tracks and is going to overrun him when in fact, they are on parallel tracks made to look superimposed because of the manipulated perspective (zooming into an object from a distance flattens the perspective, thus making things look closer than they are). Also, when the director wants to show an actress/actor along in a dense area like a forest/garden, he uses a wide angle lens to introduce more depth in terms of perspective into the frame.

So choose a position because of what it does to the perspective; then choose the focal-length/zoom. The next time you click a pic, remember the "perspective" concept and put some thought into the composition of the image. I guarantee that you will like the entire process of photography even more down this road :)